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The Wild Swans
The Wild Swans Märchen

The Wild Swans - Fairy Tale by Hans Christian Andersen

Reading time for children: 46 min

Far away in the land to which the swallows fly when it is winter, dwelt a king who had eleven sons, and on daughter, named Eliza. The eleven brothers were princes, and each went to school with a star on his breast, and a sword by his side. They wrote with diamond pencils on gold slates, and learnt their lessons so quickly and read so easily that every one might know they were princes. Their sister Eliza sat on a little stool of plate-glass, and had a book full of pictures, which had cost as much as half a kingdom.

Oh, these children were indeed happy, but it was not to remain so always.

Their father, who was king of the country, married a very wicked queen, who did not love the poor children at all. They knew this from the very first day after the wedding. In the palace there were great festivities, and the children played at receiving company; but instead of having, as usual, all the cakes and apples that were left, she gave them some sand in a tea-cup, and told them to pretend it was cake.

The week after, she sent little Eliza into the country to a peasant and his wife, and then she told the king so many untrue things about the young princes, that he gave himself no more trouble respecting them.

„Go out into the world and get your own living,“ said the queen. „Fly like great birds, who have no voice.“ But she could not make them ugly as she wished, for they were turned into eleven beautiful wild swans. Then, with a strange cry, they flew through the windows of the palace, over the park, to the forest beyond.

It was early morning when they passed the peasant’s cottage, where their sister Eliza lay asleep in her room. They hovered over the roof, twisted their long necks and flapped their wings, but no one heard them or saw them, so they were at last obliged to fly away, high up in the clouds; and over the wide world they flew till they came to a thick, dark wood, which stretched far away to the seashore.

Poor little Eliza was alone in her room playing with a green leaf, for she had no other playthings, and she pierced a hole through the leaf, and looked through it at the sun, and it was as if she saw her brothers‘ clear eyes, and when the warm sun shone on her cheeks, she thought of all the kisses they had given her.

One day passed just like another; sometimes the winds rustled through the leaves of the rose-bush, and would whisper to the roses, „Who can be more beautiful than you!“ But the roses would shake their heads, and say, „Eliza is.“ And when the old woman sat at the cottage door on Sunday, and read her hymn-book, the wind would flutter the leaves, and say to the book, „Who can be more pious than you?“ and then the hymn-book would answer „Eliza.“ And the roses and the hymn-book told the real truth.

At fifteen she returned home, but when the queen saw how beautiful she was, she became full of spite and hatred towards her. Willingly would she have turned her into a swan, like her brothers, but she did not dare to do so yet, because the king wished to see his daughter.

Early one morning the queen went into the bath-room. It was built of marble, and had soft cushions, trimmed with the most beautiful tapestry. She took three toads with her, and kissed them, and said to one, „When Eliza comes to the bath, seat yourself upon her head, that she may become as stupid as you are.“ Then she said to another, „Place yourself on her forehead, that she may become as ugly as you are, and that her father may not know her.“ – „Rest on her heart,“ she whispered to the third, „then she will have evil inclinations, and suffer in consequence.“ So she put the toads into the clear water, and they turned green immediately. She next called Eliza, and helped her to undress and get into the bath. As Eliza dipped her head under the water, one of the toads sat on her hair, a second on her forehead, and a third on her breast, but she did not seem to notice them, and when she rose out of the water, there were three red poppies floating upon it. Had not the creatures been venomous or been kissed by the witch, they would have been changed into red roses. At all events they became flowers, because they had rested on Eliza’s head, and on her heart. She was too good and too innocent for witchcraft to have any power over her.

When the wicked queen saw this, she rubbed her face with walnut-juice, so that she was quite brown. Then she tangled her beautiful hair and smeared it with disgusting ointment, till it was quite impossible to recognize the beautiful Eliza.

The wild swans Fairy TaleImage: Paul Hey (1867 – 1952)

When her father saw her, he was much shocked, and declared she was not his daughter. No one but the watch-dog and the swallows knew her; and they were only poor animals, and could say nothing.

Then poor Eliza wept, and thought of her eleven brothers, who were all away. Sorrowfully, she stole away from the palace, and walked, the whole day, over fields and moors, till she came to the great forest. She knew not in what direction to go; but she was so unhappy, and longed so for her brothers, who had been, like herself, driven out into the world, that she was determined to seek them.

She had been but a short time in the wood when night came on, and she quite lost the path. So she laid herself down on the soft moss, offered up her evening prayer, and leaned her head against the stump of a tree. All nature was still, and the soft, mild air fanned her forehead. The light of hundreds of glow-worms shone amidst the grass and the moss, like green fire; and if she touched a twig with her hand, ever so lightly, the brilliant insects fell down around her, like shooting-stars.

All night long she dreamt of her brothers. She and they were children again, playing together. She saw them writing with their diamond pencils on golden slates, while she looked at the beautiful picture-book which had cost half a kingdom. They were not writing lines and letters, as they used to do; but descriptions of the noble deeds they had performed, and of all they had discovered and seen. In the picture-book, too, everything was living. The birds sang, and the people came out of the book, and spoke to Eliza and her brothers; but, as the leaves turned over, they darted back again to their places, that all might be in order.

When she awoke, the sun was high in the heavens. Yet she could not see him, for the lofty trees spread their branches thickly over her head; but his beams were glancing through the leaves here and there, like a golden mist. There was a sweet fragrance from the fresh green verdure, and the birds almost perched upon her shoulders. She heard water rippling from a number of springs, all flowing in a lake with golden sands. Bushes grew thickly round the lake, and at one spot an opening had been made by a deer, through which Eliza went down to the water. The lake was so clear that, had not the wind rustled the branches of the trees and the bushes, so that they moved, they would have appeared as if painted in the depths of the lake. For every leaf was reflected in the water, whether it stood in the shade or the sunshine.

As soon as Eliza saw her own face, she was quite terrified at finding it so brown and ugly; but when she wetted her little hand, and rubbed her eyes and forehead, the white skin gleamed forth once more; and, after she had undressed, and dipped herself in the fresh water, a more beautiful king’s daughter could not be found in the wide world.

As soon as she had dressed herself again, and braided her long hair, she went to the bubbling spring, and drank some water out of the hollow of her hand. Then she wandered far into the forest, not knowing whither she went. She thought of her brothers, and felt sure that God would not forsake her. It is God who makes the wild apples grow in the wood, to satisfy the hungry, and He now led her to one of these trees, which was so loaded with fruit, that the boughs bent beneath the weight. Here she held her noonday repast, placed props under the boughs, and then went into the gloomiest depths of the forest. It was so still that she could hear the sound of her own footsteps, as well as the rustling of every withered leaf which she crushed under her feet. Not a bird was to be seen, not a sunbeam could penetrate through the large, dark boughs of the trees. Their lofty trunks stood so close together, that, when she looked before her, it seemed as if she were enclosed within trellis-work. Such solitude she had never known before.

The night was very dark. Not a single glow-worm glittered in the moss. Sorrowfully she laid herself down to sleep; and, after a while, it seemed to her as if the branches of the trees parted over her head, and that the mild eyes of angels looked down upon her from heaven.

When she awoke in the morning, she knew not whether she had dreamt this, or if it had really been so.

Then she continued her wandering; but she had not gone many steps forward, when she met an old woman with berries in her basket, and she gave her a few to eat. Then Eliza asked her if she had not seen eleven princes riding through the forest.

„No,“ replied the old woman, „But I saw yesterday eleven swans, with gold crowns on their heads, swimming on the river close by.

„Then she led Eliza a little distance farther to a sloping bank, and at the foot of it wound a little river. The trees on its banks stretched their long leafy branches across the water towards each other, and where the growth prevented them from meeting naturally, the roots had torn themselves away from the ground, so that the branches might mingle their foliage as they hung over the water.

Eliza bade the old woman farewell, and walked by the flowing river, till she reached the shore of the open sea.

And there, before the young maiden’s eyes, lay the glorious ocean, but not a sail appeared on its surface, not even a boat could be seen. How was she to go farther? She noticed how the countless pebbles on the sea-shore had been smoothed and rounded by the action of the water. Glass, iron, stones, everything that lay there mingled together, had taken its shape from the same power, and felt as smooth, or even smoother than her own delicate hand. „The water rolls on without weariness,“ she said, „till all that is hard becomes smooth. So will I be unwearied in my task. Thanks for your lessons, bright rolling waves; my heart tells me you will lead me to my dear brothers.“

On the foam-covered sea-weeds, lay eleven white swan feathers, which she gathered up and placed together. Drops of water lay upon them; whether they were dew-drops or tears no one could say. Lonely as it was on the sea-shore, she did not observe it, for the ever-moving sea showed more changes in a few hours than the most varying lake could produce during a whole year. If a black heavy cloud arose, it was as if the sea said, „I can look dark and angry too;“ and then the wind blew, and the waves turned to white foam as they rolled. When the wind slept, and the clouds glowed with the red sunlight, then the sea looked like a rose leaf. But however quietly its white glassy surface rested, there was still a motion on the shore, as its waves rose and fell like the breast of a sleeping child.

When the sun was about to set, Eliza saw eleven white swans with golden crowns on their heads, flying towards the land, one behind the other, like a long white ribbon. Then Eliza went down the slope from the shore, and hid herself behind the bushes. The swans alighted quite close to her and flapped their great white wings.

As soon as the sun had disappeared under the water, the feathers of the swans fell off, and eleven beautiful princes, Eliza’s brothers, stood near her. She uttered a loud cry, for, although they were very much changed, she knew them immediately. She sprang into their arms, and called them each by name. Then, how happy the princes were at meeting their little sister again, for they recognized her, although she had grown so tall and beautiful. They laughed, and they wept, and very soon understood how wickedly their mother had acted to them all.

„We brothers,“ said the eldest, „fly about as wild swans, so long as the sun is in the sky; but as soon as it sinks behind the hills, we recover our human shape. Therefore must we always be near a resting place for our feet before sunset. For if we should be flying towards the clouds at the time we recovered our natural shape as men, we should sink deep into the sea. We do not dwell here, but in a land just as fair, that lies beyond the ocean, which we have to cross for a long distance. There is no island in our passage upon which we could pass, the night; nothing but a little rock rising out of the sea, upon which we can scarcely stand with safety, even closely crowded together. If the sea is rough, the foam dashes over us, yet we thank God even for this rock. We have passed whole nights upon it, or we should never have reached our beloved fatherland, for our flight across the sea occupies two of the longest days in the year. We have permission to visit out home once in every year, and to remain eleven days, during which we fly across the forest to look once more at the palace where our father dwells, and where we were born, and at the church, where our mother lies buried. Here it seems as if the very trees and bushes were related to us. The wild horses leap over the plains as we have seen them in our childhood. The charcoal burners sing the old songs, to which we have danced as children. This is our fatherland, to which we are drawn by loving ties; and here we have found you, our dear little sister., Two days longer we can remain here, and then must we fly away to a beautiful land which is not our home; and how can we take you with us? We have neither ship nor boat.“

„How can I break this spell?“ said their sister.

And then she talked about it nearly the whole night, only slumbering for a few hours.

Eliza was awakened by the rustling of the swans‘ wings as they soared above. Her brothers were again changed to swans, and they flew in circles wider and wider, till they were far away; but one of them, the youngest swan, remained behind, and laid his head in his sister’s lap, while she stroked his wings; and they remained together the whole day. Towards evening, the rest came back, and as the sun went down they resumed their natural forms.

„To-morrow,“ said one, „we shall fly away, not to return again till a whole year has passed. But we cannot leave you here. Have you courage to go with us? My arm is strong enough to carry you through the wood; and will not all our wings be strong enough to fly with you over the sea?“

„Yes, take me with you,“ said Eliza.

Then they spent the whole night in weaving a net with the pliant willow and rushes. It was very large and strong. Eliza laid herself down on the net, and when the sun rose, and her brothers again became wild swans, they took up the net with their beaks, and flew up to the clouds with their dear sister, who still slept. The sunbeams fell on her face, therefore one of the swans soared over her head, so that his broad wings might shade her.

They were far from the land when Eliza woke. She thought she must still be dreaming, it seemed so strange to her to feel herself being carried so high in the air over the sea. By her side lay a branch full of beautiful ripe berries, and a bundle of sweet roots. The youngest of her brothers had gathered them for her, and placed them by her side. She smiled her thanks to him. She knew it was the same who had hovered over her to shade her with his wings.

They were now so high, that a large ship beneath them looked like a white sea-gull skimming the waves. A great cloud floating behind them appeared like a vast mountain, and upon it Eliza saw her own shadow and those of the eleven swans, looking gigantic in size. Altogether it formed a more beautiful picture than she had ever seen; but as the sun rose higher, and the clouds were left behind, the shadowy picture vanished away.

Onward the whole day they flew through the air like a winged arrow, yet more slowly than usual, for they had their sister to carry. The weather seemed inclined to be stormy, and Eliza watched the sinking sun with great anxiety, for the little rock in the ocean was not yet in sight. It appeared to her as if the swans were making great efforts with their wings. Alas! she was the cause of their not advancing more quickly. When the sun set, they would change to men, fall into the sea and be drowned. Then she offered a prayer from her inmost heart, but still no appearance of the rock. Dark clouds came nearer, the gusts of wind told of a coming storm, while from a thick, heavy mass of clouds the lightning burst forth flash after flash.

The sun had reached the edge of the sea, when the swans darted down so swiftly, that Eliza’s head trembled. She believed they were falling, but they again soared onward. Presently she caught sight of the rock just below them, and by this time the sun was half hidden by the waves. The rock did not appear larger than a seal’s head thrust out of the water. They sunk so rapidly, that at the moment their feet touched the rock, it shone only like a star, and at last disappeared like the last spark in a piece of burnt paper. Then she saw her brothers standing closely round her with their arms linked together. There was but just room enough for them, and not the smallest space to spare. The sea dashed against the rock, and covered them with spray. The heavens were lighted up with continual flashes, and peal after peal of thunder rolled. But the sister and brothers sat holding each other’s hands, and singing hymns, from which they gained hope and courage.

In the early dawn the air became calm and still, and at sunrise the swans flew away from the rock with Eliza. The sea was still rough, and from their high position in the air, the white foam on the dark green waves looked like millions of swans swimming on the water.

As the sun rose higher, Eliza saw before her, floating on the air, a range of mountains, with shining masses of ice on their summits. In the centre, rose a castle apparently a mile long, with rows of columns, rising one above another, while, around it, palm-trees waved and flowers bloomed as large as mill wheels. She asked if this was the land to which they were hastening. The swans shook their heads, for what she beheld were the beautiful ever-changing cloud palaces of the „Fata Morgana,“ into which no mortal can enter. Eliza was still gazing at the scene, when mountains, forests, and castles melted away, and twenty stately churches rose in their stead, with high towers and pointed gothic windows. Eliza even fancied she could hear the tones of the organ, but it was the music of the murmuring sea which she heard. As they drew nearer to the churches, they also changed into a fleet of ships, which seemed to be sailing beneath her; but as she looked again, she found it was only a sea mist gliding over the ocean. So there continued to pass before her eyes a constant change of scene, till at last she saw the real land to which they were bound, with its blue mountains, its cedar forests, and its cities and palaces. Long before the sun went down, she sat on a rock, in front of a large cave, on the floor of which the over-grown yet delicate green creeping plants looked like an embroidered carpet.

„Now we shall expect to hear what you dream of to-night,“ said the youngest brother, as he showed his sister her bedroom.

„Heaven grant that I may dream how to save you,“ she replied. And this thought took such hold upon her mind that she prayed earnestly to God for help, and even in her sleep she continued to pray. Then it appeared to her as if she were flying high in the air, towards the cloudy palace of the „Fata Morgana,“ and a fairy came out to meet her, radiant and beautiful in appearance, and yet very much like the old woman who had given her berries in the wood, and who had told her of the swans with golden crowns on their heads.

„Your brothers can be released,“ said she, „if you have only courage and perseverance. True, water is softer than your own delicate hands, and yet it polishes stones into shapes. It feels no pain as your fingers would feel, it has no soul, and cannot suffer such agony and torment as you will have to endure. Do you see the stinging nettle which I hold in my hand? Quantities of the same sort grow round the cave in which you sleep, but none will be of any use to you unless they grow upon the graves in a churchyard. These you must gather even while they burn blisters on your hands. Break them to pieces with your hands and feet, and they will become flax, from which you must spin and weave eleven coats with long sleeves. If these are then thrown over the eleven swans, the spell will be broken. But remember, that from the moment you commence your task until it is finished, even should it occupy years of your life, you must not speak. The first word you utter will pierce through the hearts of your brothers like a deadly dagger. Their lives hang upon your tongue. Remember all I have told you.“

And as she finished speaking, she touched her hand lightly with the nettle, and a pain, as of burning fire, awoke Eliza. It was broad daylight, and close by where she had been sleeping lay a nettle like the one she had seen in her dream. She fell on her knees and offered her thanks to God. Then she went forth from the cave to begin her work with her delicate hands.

She groped in amongst the ugly nettles, which burnt great blisters on her hands and arms, but she determined to bear it gladly if she could only release her dear brothers. So she bruised the nettles with her bare feet and spun the flax.

At sunset her brothers returned and were very much frightened when they found her dumb. They believed it to be some new sorcery of their wicked step-mother. But when they saw her hands they understood what she was doing on their behalf, and the youngest brother wept, and where his tears fell the pain ceased, and the burning blisters vanished.

She kept to her work all night, for she could not rest till she had released her dear brothers. During the whole of the following day, while her brothers were absent, she sat in solitude, but never before had the time flown so quickly. One coat was already finished and she had begun the second, when she heard the huntsman’s horn, and was struck with fear.

The sound came nearer and nearer, she heard the dogs barking, and fled with terror into the cave. She hastily bound together the nettles she had gathered into a bundle and sat upon them.

Immediately a great dog came bounding towards her out of the ravine, and then another and another. They barked loudly, ran back, and then came again. In a very few minutes all the huntsmen stood before the cave, and the handsomest of them was the king of the country. He advanced towards her, for he had never seen a more beautiful maiden.

„How did you come here, my sweet child?“ he asked. But Eliza shook her head. She dared not speak, at the cost of her brothers‘ lives. And she hid her hands under her apron, so that the king might not see how she must be suffering.

„Come with me,“ he said; „here you cannot remain. If you are as good as you are beautiful, I will dress you in silk and velvet, I will place a golden crown upon your head, and you shall dwell, and rule, and make your home in my richest castle.“ And then he lifted her on his horse. She wept and wrung her hands, but the king said, „I wish only for your happiness. A time will come when you will thank me for this.“ And then he galloped away over the mountains, holding her before him on this horse, and the hunters followed behind them.

As the sun went down, they approached a fair royal city, with churches, and cupolas. On arriving at the castle the king led her into marble halls, where large fountains played, and where the walls and the ceilings were covered with rich paintings. But she had no eyes for all these glorious sights, she could only mourn and weep. Patiently she allowed the women to array her in royal robes, to weave pearls in her hair, and draw soft gloves over her blistered fingers.

As she stood before them in all her rich dress, she looked so dazzingly beautiful that the court bowed low in her presence. Then the king declared his intention of making her his bride, but the archbishop shook his head, and whispered that the fair young maiden was only a witch who had blinded the king’s eyes and bewitched his heart.

But the king would not listen to this. He ordered the music to sound, the daintiest dishes to be served, and the loveliest maidens to dance. After-wards he led her through fragrant gardens and lofty halls, but not a smile appeared on her lips or sparkled in her eyes. She looked the very picture of grief. Then the king opened the door of a little chamber in which she was to sleep. It was adorned with rich green tapestry, and resembled the cave in which he had found her. On the floor lay the bundle of flax which she had spun from the nettles, and under the ceiling hung the coat she had made.

The wild swans Fairy TaleImage: Paul Hey (1867 – 1952)

These things had been brought away from the cave as curiosities by one of the huntsmen. „Here you can dream yourself back again in the old home in the cave,“ said the king; „here is the work with which you employed yourself. It will amuse you now in the midst of all this splendor to think of that time.“

When Eliza saw all these things which lay so near her heart, a smile played around her mouth, and the crimson blood rushed to her cheeks. She thought of her brothers, and their release made her so joyful that she kissed the king’s hand. Then he pressed her to his heart. Very soon the joyous church bells announced the marriage feast, and that the beautiful dumb girl out of the wood was to be made the queen of the country.

Then the archbishop whispered wicked words in the king’s ear, but they did not sink into his heart. The marriage was still to take place, and the archbishop himself had to place the crown on the bride’s head. In his wicked spite, he pressed the narrow circlet so tightly on her forehead that it caused her pain. But a heavier weight encircled her heart– sorrow for her brothers. She felt not bodily pain. Her mouth was closed; a single word would cost the lives of her brothers. But she loved the kind, handsome king, who did everything to make her happy more and more each day. She loved him with all her heart, and her eyes beamed with the love she dared not speak. Oh! if she had only been able to confide in him and tell him of her grief. But dumb she must remain till her task was finished. Therefore at night she crept away into her little chamber, which had been decked out to look like the cave, and quickly wove one coat after another. But when she began the seventh she found she had no more flax.

She knew that the nettles she wanted to use grew in the churchyard, and that she must pluck them herself. How should she get out there?

„Oh, what is the pain in my fingers to the torment which my heart endures?“ said she. „I must venture, I shall not be denied help from heaven.“ Then with a trembling heart, as if she were about to perform a wicked deed, she crept into the garden in the broad moonlight, and passed through the narrow walks and the deserted streets, till she reached the churchyard. Then she saw on one of the broad tombstones a group of ghouls. These hideous creatures took off their rags, as if they intended to bathe, and then clawing open the fresh graves with their long, skinny fingers, pulled out the dead bodies and ate the flesh! Eliza had to pass close by them, and they fixed their wicked glances upon her, but she prayed silently, gathered the burning nettles, and carried them home with her to the castle.

One person only had seen her, and that was the archbishop– he was awake while everybody was asleep. Now he thought his opinion was evidently correct. All was not right with the queen. She was a witch, and had bewitched the king and all the people.

Secretly he told the king what he had seen and what he feared, and as the hard words came from his tongue, the carved images of the saints shook their heads as if they would say. „It is not so. Eliza is innocent.“ But the archbishop interpreted it in another way. He believed that they witnessed against her, and were shaking their heads at her wickedness. Two large tears rolled down the king’s cheeks, and he went home with doubt in his heart, and at night he pretended to sleep, but there came no real sleep to his eyes, for he saw Eliza get up every night and disappear in her own chamber.

From day to day his brow became darker, and Eliza saw it and did not understand the reason, but it alarmed her and made her heart tremble for her brothers. Her hot tears glittered like pearls on the regal velvet and diamonds, while all who saw her were wishing they could be queens. In the mean time she had almost finished her task; only one coat of mail was wanting, but she had no flax left, and not a single nettle. Once more only, and for the last time, must she venture to the churchyard and pluck a few handfuls. She thought with terror of the solitary walk, and of the horrible ghouls, but her will was firm, as well as her trust in Providence.

Eliza went, and the king and the archbishop followed her. They saw her vanish through the wicket gate into the churchyard, and when they came nearer they saw the ghouls sitting on the tombstone, as Eliza had seen them, and the king turned away his head, for he thought she was with them– she whose head had rested on his breast that very evening.

The wild swans Fairy TaleImage: Paul Hey (1867 – 1952)

„The people must condemn her,“ said he, and she was very quickly condemned by every one to suffer death by fire.

Away from the gorgeous regal halls was she led to a dark, dreary cell, where the wind whistled through the iron bars. Instead of the velvet and silk dresses, they gave her the coats of mail which she had woven to cover her, and the bundle of nettles for a pillow; but nothing they could give her would have pleased her more. She continued her task with joy, and prayed for help, while the street-boys sang jeering songs about her, and not a soul comforted her with a kind word.

Towards evening, she heard at the grating the flutter of a swan’s wing, it was her youngest brother– he had found his sister, and she sobbed for joy, although she knew that very likely this would be the last night she would have to live. But still she could hope, for her task was almost finished, and her brothers were come.

Then the archbishop arrived, to be with her during her last hours, as he had promised the king. But she shook her head, and begged him, by looks and gestures, not to stay. For in this night she knew she must finish her task, otherwise all her pain and tears and sleepless nights would have been suffered in vain. The archbishop withdrew, uttering bitter words against her; but poor Eliza knew that she was innocent, and diligently continued her work.

The little mice ran about the floor, they dragged the nettles to her feet, to help as well as they could; and the thrush sat outside the grating of the window, and sang to her the whole night long, as sweetly as possible, to keep up her spirits.

It was still twilight, and at least an hour before sunrise, when the eleven brothers stood at the castle gate, and demanded to be brought before the king. They were told it could not be, it was yet almost night, and as the king slept they dared not disturb him. They threatened, they entreated. Then the guard appeared, and even the king himself, inquiring what all the noise meant. At this moment the sun rose. The eleven brothers were seen no more, but eleven wild swans flew away over the castle.

And now all the people came streaming forth from the gates of the city, to see the witch burnt. An old horse drew the cart on which she sat. They had dressed her in a garment of coarse sackcloth. Her lovely hair hung loose on her shoulders, her cheeks were deadly pale, her lips moved silently, while her fingers still worked at the green flax. Even on the way to death, she would not give up her task. The ten coats of mail lay at her feet, she was working hard at the eleventh, while the mob jeered her and said,

„See the witch, how she mutters! She has no hymn-book in her hand. She sits there with her ugly sorcery. Let us tear it in a thousand pieces.“

And then they pressed towards her, and would have destroyed the coats of mail, but at the same moment eleven wild swans flew over her, and alighted on the cart. Then they flapped their large wings, and the crowd drew on one side in alarm.

The wild swans Fairy TaleImage: Paul Hey (1867 – 1952)

„It is a sign from heaven that she is innocent,“ whispered many of them; but they ventured not to say it aloud.

As the executioner seized her by the hand, to lift her out of the cart, she hastily threw the eleven coats of mail over the swans, and they immediately became eleven handsome princes; but the youngest had a swan’s wing, instead of an arm. For she had not been able to finish the last sleeve of the coat.

„Now I may speak,“ she exclaimed. „I am innocent.“

Then the people, who saw what happened, bowed to her, as before a saint; but she sank lifeless in her brothers‘ arms, overcome with suspense, anguish, and pain.

„Yes, she is innocent,“ said the eldest brother; and then he related all that had taken place; and while he spoke there rose in the air a fragrance as from millions of roses. Every piece of faggot in the pile had taken root, and threw out branches, and appeared a thick hedge, large and high, covered with roses. While above all bloomed a white and shining flower, that glittered like a star. This flower the king plucked, and placed in Eliza’s bosom, when she awoke from her swoon, with peace and happiness in her heart.

And all the church bells rang of themselves, and the birds came in great troops. And a marriage procession returned to the castle, such as no king had ever before seen.

Backgrounds to fairy tale „The wild swans“

„The Wild Swans“ is a classic fairy tale by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen, first published in 1838. The story has its roots in European folklore, with similar tales appearing across various cultures. The fairy tale has been adapted into numerous films, television shows, and other media over the years.

Folklore: The story of „The Wild Swans“ can be traced back to ancient European folktales, with several variations appearing across different cultures. These tales often feature a theme of transformation, with characters turning into birds or other animals, and a protagonist who must break the spell to save them.

Literary influences: Hans Christian Andersen was known to draw inspiration from the vast world of folklore and mythology. He often adapted and expanded upon traditional tales, giving them a unique and imaginative twist. „The Wild Swans“ is no exception, as Andersen took inspiration from various sources to create a rich and vivid narrative.

Cultural context: Andersen’s fairy tales were written during the 19th century, a period characterized by a fascination with folk stories and fairy tales. His stories were part of the broader Romantic movement, which emphasized the importance of imagination, emotion, and individualism. Andersen’s works often contain moral lessons and explore themes like love, loyalty, and the power of the human spirit.

Personal experiences: As with many of his stories, Andersen’s personal life may have influenced the themes and characters in „The Wild Swans.“ Growing up in poverty, Andersen often felt like an outsider and experienced a deep longing for acceptance and success. These feelings are reflected in the tale’s protagonist, who must overcome adversity and persevere in the face of hardship to save her brothers.

In „The Wild Swans,“ a young princess named Elisa must save her eleven brothers who have been turned into swans by an evil stepmother. To break the curse, she must remain silent and weave shirts made of nettles for each of them. The story is a tale of love, sacrifice, and perseverance, as Elisa overcomes numerous obstacles and hardships to restore her family.

Interpretations to fairy tale „The wild swans“

„The Wild Swans“ is a rich and multi-layered fairy tale that has been interpreted in various ways over the years. Some common interpretations include:

Love and sacrifice: At its core, „The Wild Swans“ is a tale of love and sacrifice. Elisa’s devotion to her brothers is unwavering, even in the face of great adversity. She is willing to endure pain, isolation, and even the risk of death to save them. This theme resonates with readers and serves as a reminder of the power of love to overcome obstacles and transform lives.

Perseverance and resilience: Elisa’s journey is marked by numerous challenges and setbacks. Despite the hardships she faces, she remains steadfast in her determination to break the curse. This theme of perseverance and resilience is a common thread in many of Andersen’s fairy tales, encouraging readers to face their own challenges with courage and determination.

The power of silence: In order to break the curse, Elisa must remain silent for the entire duration of her task. This silence becomes both her strength and her burden, as it allows her to focus on her mission but also leads to misunderstandings and false accusations. The theme of silence in the story can be interpreted as a metaphor for the importance of inner strength and self-discipline.

Transformation and redemption: The motif of transformation is central to „The Wild Swans,“ with the brothers turned into swans and Elisa undertaking a personal transformation as she works to save them. Through Elisa’s love and determination, the brothers are ultimately redeemed, symbolizing the potential for change and growth in the face of adversity.

The importance of family: Family bonds play a crucial role in „The Wild Swans,“ as the love between Elisa and her brothers drives the story. This theme highlights the significance of familial love and loyalty, serving as a reminder that family can provide strength and support in difficult times.

Nature and spirituality: Throughout the tale, nature serves as both a source of solace and an obstacle for Elisa. The nettles she must gather for the shirts grow in graveyards, a place associated with death, but also symbolize rebirth and healing. This theme speaks to the complex relationship between humans, nature, and spirituality, emphasizing the importance of balance and harmony.

Overall, „The Wild Swans“ offers a wealth of interpretations, inviting readers to explore its themes and consider their own personal connections to the story.

Adaptions of the fairy tale „The wild swans“

„The Wild Swans“ has been adapted into various forms of media over the years, including films, television series, animated features, and stage productions. Some notable adaptations include:

Film: „The Wild Swans“ (1962) – A Soviet animated film directed by Mikhail Tsekhanovsky. This adaptation closely follows the original fairy tale and features beautiful hand-drawn animation.

Film: „The Wild Swans“ (1977) – A Japanese animated film directed by Nobutaka Nishizawa, released under the title „Sekai Meisaku Dōwa: Hakuchō no Ōji.“ This adaptation incorporates some changes to the original story, including the introduction of a villain named Lord Lazarel.

Television: „Grimm’s Fairy Tale Classics“ (1987-1989) – A Japanese animated anthology television series, which includes an adaptation of „The Wild Swans“ in Season 1, Episode 17. This version remains faithful to Andersen’s tale and features an art style reminiscent of European storybook illustrations.

Television: „Simba: The King Lion“ (1995-1996) – An Italian animated television series, which features a loose adaptation of „The Wild Swans“ in episodes 38-41. The story is set in an animal kingdom, and Elisa’s brothers are turned into swans by an evil snake named Shere Khan.

Stage production: „The Wild Swans“ (2003) – A ballet adaptation choreographed by Christopher Hampson and premiered by the Royal New Zealand Ballet. The production combines elements of dance, theater, and puppetry to bring the fairy tale to life.

Opera: „The Wild Swans“ (2009) – A chamber opera composed by Gordon Getty, based on the story by Andersen. The opera features a libretto by John David Morley and premiered at the Leipzig Opera in Germany.

Illustrated books: Numerous illustrated editions of „The Wild Swans“ have been published over the years, with artwork by renowned illustrators such as Susan Jeffers, Mercer Mayer, and Anne Anderson.

These adaptations showcase the enduring appeal of „The Wild Swans“ and its ability to capture the imagination of audiences across different cultures and generations. The story’s themes of love, sacrifice, and perseverance continue to resonate with readers and viewers, making it a timeless classic.

Adaptions of the fairy tale „The wild swans“

„The Wild Swans“ by Hans Christian Andersen has inspired a number of adaptations and retellings across various media. Here are some notable adaptations of the fairy tale:

„The Wild Swans“ by Mabel Lucie Attwell: This illustrated book retells the story of Elisa and her brothers in a child-friendly format, featuring colorful and whimsical illustrations.

„The Wild Swans“ by Peg Kerr: This novel is a modern retelling of the fairy tale, set in contemporary Minnesota. It explores themes of family, identity, and the power of love.

„The Wild Swans“ by Jackie Morris: This picture book adaptation of the fairy tale features stunning illustrations by the award-winning artist Jackie Morris, bringing the story to life in vivid detail.

„The Wild Swans“ by Mikhail Glinka: This opera, composed in 1842, is based on Andersen’s fairy tale. It features soaring melodies and dramatic choral passages, making it a classic of the operatic repertoire.

„The Wild Swans“ by Studio Ghibli: This animated short film is part of the Japanese animation studio’s „Tales from Earthsea“ collection. It tells the story of Elisa and her brothers in a visually stunning and emotionally resonant way.

„The Wild Swans“ by Angela Carter: This short story, part of the author’s collection „The Bloody Chamber,“ reimagines Andersen’s fairy tale as a dark and sensual tale of transformation and liberation.

These adaptations demonstrate the enduring popularity and relevance of „The Wild Swans,“ and the enduring appeal of Andersen’s timeless fairy tales.

Summary of the plot

„The Wild Swans“ is a fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen about a young princess named Elisa and her eleven brothers. An evil stepmother, who happens to be a witch, becomes jealous of the siblings‘ love for one another and casts a spell on the brothers, turning them into swans. They can only regain their human forms at night. Elisa is banished from the kingdom and sets out to find her brothers.

Eventually, Elisa discovers her brothers living as swans in a faraway land. She learns from a wise fairy that she can break the spell by remaining silent and weaving eleven shirts made from stinging nettles found in graveyards. She must complete this task within six years, or the spell will become permanent.

Elisa begins her work, enduring the pain from handling the nettles and living in silence. One day, a king discovers Elisa and falls in love with her. They marry, but Elisa remains silent and continues her task, raising suspicion among the king’s subjects. The king’s mother, especially, grows distrustful of Elisa and accuses her of witchcraft.

As the six-year deadline approaches, Elisa is sentenced to death by burning at the stake. Despite her impending doom, she continues to weave the shirts. On the day of her execution, her brothers arrive as swans, and she throws the completed shirts over them, breaking the curse and restoring their human forms. In the process, Elisa’s innocence is revealed, and she regains her ability to speak.

Elisa and the king live happily ever after, and her brothers return to their kingdom to reclaim their rightful place. „The Wild Swans“ is a tale of love, sacrifice, and perseverance, demonstrating the power of determination and familial bonds in overcoming adversity.


Backgrounds to fairy tale „The wild swans“

„The Wild Swans“ is a literary fairy tale written by the Danish author Hans Christian Andersen. Andersen was born on April 2, 1805, in Odense, Denmark, and died on August 4, 1875. He is considered one of the most significant figures in the world of children’s literature, best known for his vast collection of fairy tales.

Andersen published his first collection of fairy tales in 1835, titled „Fairy Tales Told for Children.“ However, „The Wild Swans“ was published later, on October 2, 1838, as part of „Fairy Tales Told for Children. New Collection. First Booklet“ (Eventyr, fortalte for Børn. Ny Samling. Første Hefte) by C. A. Reitzel in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Many of Andersen’s tales are inspired by Danish and European folklore, as well as his own experiences and imagination. In the case of „The Wild Swans,“ it is believed that Andersen was influenced by a similar Danish folktale titled „De elleve Svaner“ (The Eleven Swans), collected by Mathias Winther and published in 1823. Andersen’s fairy tales often feature elements of magic, fantasy, and morality, making them both entertaining and educational.

Throughout his life, Andersen faced many hardships, including poverty, discrimination, and loneliness. Despite these struggles, he managed to become one of the most celebrated authors of his time. His fairy tales have been translated into more than 100 languages and continue to be enjoyed by children and adults worldwide.

„The Wild Swans“ remains one of Andersen’s most beloved tales, showcasing his storytelling abilities and unique style. The story’s enduring popularity has led to numerous adaptations across various media, including ballet, television, film, and literature, demonstrating its universal appeal and timeless message.

Interpretations to fairy tale „The wild swans“

„The Wild Swans“ has various interpretations that offer different perspectives on the themes, motifs, and meanings within the tale. Some of the common interpretations include:

Struggle and perseverance: Elisa’s journey in knitting the shirts and her vow of silence represent the struggles and hardships she endures to save her brothers. Her determination and perseverance highlight the importance of overcoming challenges to achieve a goal.

The power of love and family: Elisa’s devotion to her brothers and her willingness to endure pain to save them demonstrates the strength of familial love. The bond between the siblings helps them triumph over the evil queen and restores their lives.

Innocence and purity: Elisa’s inherent goodness and purity protect her from the evil queen’s spells and allow her to complete her difficult task. The tale illustrates the power of innocence in overcoming evil and adversity.

Sacrifice: The story emphasizes the importance of self-sacrifice for the well-being of others. Elisa sacrifices her comfort, safety, and even her ability to speak to save her brothers, while her brothers protect her and carry her to safety.

Gender roles and empowerment: Elisa challenges traditional gender roles by actively taking up the responsibility of saving her brothers. Through her courage and determination, she demonstrates female empowerment and challenges societal expectations.

Transformation and redemption: The swans‘ transformation symbolizes the brothers‘ loss of humanity due to the evil queen’s actions. The brothers‘ return to human form signifies their redemption and the restoration of their true selves.

The power of faith: Elisa’s unwavering faith in her task, despite the challenges she faces, is an essential element of the story. Her belief in the power of the nettles and her ability to save her brothers ultimately leads to their salvation.

These interpretations of „The Wild Swans“ showcase the depth and complexity of Andersen’s fairy tale, allowing readers to explore different themes and messages embedded within the narrative.

Summary of the plot

„The Wild Swans“ is a literary fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen about a princess named Elisa who rescues her eleven brothers from a spell cast by an evil queen. In a faraway kingdom, a widowed king remarries a wicked queen, who turns her stepsons into magnificent swans, only allowing them to be human at night. When Elisa turns fifteen, the queen tries to bewitch her but fails, so she banishes Elisa instead.

Elisa finds her brothers, who carry her to safety in a foreign land. The queen of the fairies instructs Elisa to gather stinging nettles in graveyards and knit them into shirts to help her brothers regain their human forms. Elisa must not speak during her task, or her brothers will die. The handsome king of another land falls in love with Elisa and proposes, but an archbishop accuses her of witchcraft. She is sentenced to death, but her brothers rescue her, and she finishes knitting the shirts, breaking the spell. The youngest brother is left with a swan’s wing instead of an arm, as Elisa did not finish one sleeve. The king marries Elisa, who is now free to speak.

The tale has been adapted into various media, including ballet, television, and film. It is thought that Andersen took inspiration from a similar Danish folktale titled „De elleve Svaner“ (The Eleven Swans) by Mathias Winther.

Informations for scientific analysis

Fairy tale statistics
TranslationsDE, EN, DA, ES, FR, IT, NL, RO
Readability Index by Björnsson33.7
Flesch-Reading-Ease Index76
Flesch–Kincaid Grade-Level7.7
Gunning Fog Index10.3
Coleman–Liau Index9
SMOG Index9.6
Automated Readability Index8.6
Character Count36.398
Letter Count28.359
Sentence Count329
Word Count6.728
Average Words per Sentence20,45
Words with more than 6 letters889
Percentage of long words13.2%
Number of Syllables8.757
Average Syllables per Word1,30
Words with three Syllables401
Percentage Words with three Syllables6%
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