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The Shadow
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The Shadow - Fairy Tale by Hans Christian Andersen

Reading time for children: 34 min

In very hot climates, where the heat of the sun has great power, people are usually as brown as mahogany; and in the hottest countries they are negroes, with black skins. A learned man once travelled into one of these warm climates, from the cold regions of the north, and thought he would roam about as he did at home; but he soon had to change his opinion. He found that, like all sensible people, he must remain in the house during the whole day, with every window and door closed, so that it looked as if all in the house were asleep or absent. The houses of the narrow street in which he lived were so lofty that the sun shone upon them from morning till evening, and it became quite unbearable. This learned man from the cold regions was young as well as clever; but it seemed to him as if he were sitting in an oven, and he became quite exhausted and weak, and grew so thin that his shadow shrivelled up, and became much smaller than it had been at home. The sun took away even what was left of it, and he saw nothing of it till the evening, after sunset. It was really a pleasure, as soon as the lights were brought into the room, to see the shadow stretch itself against the wall, even to the ceiling, so tall was it; and it really wanted a good stretch to recover its strength. The learned man would sometimes go out into the balcony to stretch himself also; and as soon as the stars came forth in the clear, beautiful sky, he felt revived. People at this hour began to make their appearance in all the balconies in the street. For in warm climates every window has a balcony, in which they can breathe the fresh evening air, which is very necessary, even to those who are used to a heat that makes them as brown as mahogany. So that the street presented a very lively appearance. Here were shoemakers, and tailors, and all sorts of people sitting. In the street beneath, they brought out tables and chairs, lighted candles by hundreds, talked and sang, and were very merry. There were people walking, carriages driving, and mules trotting along, with their bells on the harness, „tingle, tingle,“ as they went. Then the dead were carried to the grave with the sound of solemn music, and the tolling of the church bells. It was indeed a scene of varied life in the street. One house only, which was just opposite to the one in which the foreign learned man lived, formed a contrast to all this, for it was quite still; and yet somebody dwelt there, for flowers stood in the balcony, blooming beautifully in the hot sun; and this could not have been unless they had been watered carefully. Therefore some one must be in the house to do this. The doors leading to the balcony were half opened in the evening; and although in the front room all was dark, music could be heard from the interior of the house. The foreign learned man considered this music very delightful; but perhaps he fancied it. For everything in these warm countries pleased him, excepting the heat of the sun. The foreign landlord said he did not know who had taken the opposite house– nobody was to be seen there; and as to the music, he thought it seemed very tedious, to him most uncommonly so.

„It is just as if some one was practising a piece that he could not manage. It is always the same piece. He thinks, I suppose, that he will be able to manage it at last; but I do not think so, however long he may play it.“

Once the foreigner woke in the night. He slept with the door open which led to the balcony. The wind had raised the curtain before it, and there appeared a wonderful brightness over all in the balcony of the opposite house. The flowers seemed like flames of the most gorgeous colors, and among the flowers stood a beautiful slender maiden. It was to him as if light streamed from her, and dazzled his eyes; but then he had only just opened them, as he awoke from his sleep. With one spring he was out of bed, and crept softly behind the curtain. But she was gone– the brightness had disappeared. The flowers no longer appeared like flames, although still as beautiful as ever. The door stood ajar, and from an inner room sounded music so sweet and so lovely, that it produced the most enchanting thoughts, and acted on the senses with magic power. Who could live there? Where was the real entrance? for, both in the street and in the lane at the side, the whole ground floor was a continuation of shops; and people could not always be passing through them.

One evening the foreigner sat in the balcony. A light was burning in his own room, just behind him. It was quite natural, therefore, that his shadow should fall on the wall of the opposite house. So that, as he sat amongst the flowers on his balcony, when he moved, his shadow moved also.

„I think my shadow is the only living thing to be seen opposite,“ said the learned man; „see how pleasantly it sits among the flowers. The door is only ajar. The shadow ought to be clever enough to step in and look about him, and then to come back and tell me what he has seen. You could make yourself useful in this way,“ said he, jokingly; „be so good as to step in now, will you?“ and then he nodded to the shadow, and the shadow nodded in return. „Now go, but don’t stay away altogether.“

Then the foreigner stood up, and the shadow on the opposite balcony stood up also. The foreigner turned round, the shadow turned; and if any one had observed, they might have seen it go straight into the half-opened door of the opposite balcony, as the learned man re-entered his own room, and let the curtain fall. The next morning he went out to take his coffee and read the newspapers.

„How is this?“ he exclaimed, as he stood in the sunshine. „I have lost my shadow. So it really did go away yesterday evening, and it has not returned. This is very annoying.“

And it certainly did vex him, not so much because the shadow was gone, but because he knew there was a story of a man without a shadow. All the people at home, in his country, knew this story; and when he returned, and related his own adventures, they would say it was only an imitation; and he had no desire for such things to be said of him. So he decided not to speak of it at all, which was a very sensible determination.

In the evening he went out again on his balcony, taking care to place the light behind him. For he knew that a shadow always wants his master for a screen; but he could not entice him out. He made himself little, and he made himself tall; but there was no shadow, and no shadow came. He said, „Hem, a-hem;“ but it was all useless. That was very vexatious; but in warm countries everything grows very quickly; and, after a week had passed, he saw, to his great joy, that a new shadow was growing from his feet, when he walked in the sunshine. So that the root must have remained. After three weeks, he had quite a respectable shadow, which, during his return journey to northern lands, continued to grow, and became at last so large that he might very well have spared half of it. When this learned man arrived at home, he wrote books about the true, the good, and the beautiful, which are to be found in this world; and so days and years passed– many, many years.

One evening, as he sat in his study, a very gentle tap was heard at the door. „Come in,“ said he; but no one came. He opened the door, and there stood before him a man so remarkably thin that he felt seriously troubled at his appearance. He was, however, very well dressed, and looked like a gentleman. „To whom have I the honor of speaking?“ said he.

„Ah, I hoped you would recognize me,“ said the elegant stranger; „I have gained so much that I have a body of flesh, and clothes to wear. You never expected to see me in such a condition. Do you not recognize your old shadow? Ah, you never expected that I should return to you again. All has been prosperous with me since I was with you last. I have become rich in every way, and, were I inclined to purchase my freedom from service, I could easily do so.“ And as he spoke he rattled between his fingers a number of costly trinkets which hung to a thick gold watch-chain he wore round his neck. Diamond rings sparkled on his fingers, and it was all real.

„I cannot recover from my astonishment,“ said the learned man. „What does all this mean?“

„Something rather unusual,“ said the shadow. „But you are yourself an uncommon man, and you know very well that I have followed in your footsteps ever since your childhood. As soon as you found that I have travelled enough to be trusted alone, I went my own way, and I am now in the most brilliant circumstances. But I felt a kind of longing to see you once more before you die, and I wanted to see this place again, for there is always a clinging to the land of one’s birth. I know that you have now another shadow; do I owe you anything? If so, have the goodness to say what it is.“

„No! Is it really you?“ said the learned man. „Well, this is most remarkable. I never supposed it possible that a man’s old shadow could become a human being.“

„Just tell me what I owe you,“ said the shadow, „for I do not like to be in debt to any man.“

„How can you talk in that manner?“ said the learned man. „What question of debt can there be between us? You are as free as any one. I rejoice exceedingly to hear of your good fortune. Sit down, old friend, and tell me a little of how it happened, and what you saw in the house opposite to me while we were in those hot climates.“

„Yes, I will tell you all about it,“ said the shadow, sitting down. „But then you must promise me never to tell in this city, wherever you may meet me, that I have been your shadow. I am thinking of being married, for I have more than sufficient to support a family.“

„Make yourself quite easy,“ said the learned man; „I will tell no one who you really are. Here is my hand,– I promise, and a word is sufficient between man and man.“

„Between man and a shadow,“ said the shadow. For he could not help saying so.

It was really most remarkable how very much he had become a man in appearance. He was dressed in a suit of the very finest black cloth, polished boots, and an opera crush hat, which could be folded together so that nothing could be seen but the crown and the rim, besides the trinkets, the gold chain, and the diamond rings already spoken of. The shadow was, in fact, very well dressed, and this made a man of him. „Now I will relate to you what you wish to know,“ said the shadow, placing his foot with the polished leather boot as firmly as possible on the arm of the new shadow of the learned man, which lay at his feet like a poodle dog. This was done, it might be from pride, or perhaps that the new shadow might cling to him, but the prostrate shadow remained quite quiet and at rest, in order that it might listen, for it wanted to know how a shadow could be sent away by its master, and become a man itself. „Do you know,“ said the shadow, „that in the house opposite to you lived the most glorious creature in the world? It was poetry. I remained there three weeks, and it was more like three thousand years, for I read all that has ever been written in poetry or prose; and I may say, in truth, that I saw and learnt everything.“

„Poetry!“ exclaimed the learned man. „Yes, she lives as a hermit in great cities. Poetry! Well, I saw her once for a very short moment, while sleep weighed down my eyelids. She flashed upon me from the balcony like the radiant aurora borealis, surrounded with flowers like flames of fire. Tell me, you were on the balcony that evening. You went through the door, and what did you see?“

„I found myself in an ante-room,“ said the shadow. „You still sat opposite to me, looking into the room. There was no light, or at least it seemed in partial darkness, for the door of a whole suite of rooms stood open, and they were brilliantly lighted. The blaze of light would have killed me, had I approached too near the maiden myself, but I was cautious, and took time, which is what every one ought to do.“

„And what didst thou see?“ asked the learned man.

„I saw everything, as you shall hear. But– it really is not pride on my part, as a free man and possessing the knowledge that I do, besides my position, not to speak of my wealth– I wish you would say you to me instead of thou.“

„I beg your pardon,“ said the learned man; „it is an old habit, which it is difficult to break. You are quite right. I will try to think of it. But now tell me everything that you saw.“

„Everything,“ said the shadow; „for I saw and know everything.“

„What was the appearance of the inner rooms?“ asked the scholar. „Was it there like a cool grove, or like a holy temple? Were the chambers like a starry sky seen from the top of a high mountain?“

„It was all that you describe,“ said the shadow. „But I did not go quite in– I remained in the twilight of the ante-room– but I was in a very good position,– I could see and hear all that was going on in the court of poetry.“

„But what did you see? Did the gods of ancient times pass through the rooms? Did old heroes fight their battles over again? Were there lovely children at play, who related their dreams?“

„I tell you I have been there, and therefore you may be sure that I saw everything that was to be seen. If you had gone there, you would not have remained a human being, whereas I became one; and at the same moment I became aware of my inner being, my inborn affinity to the nature of poetry. It is true I did not think much about it while I was with you, but you will remember that I was always much larger at sunrise and sunset, and in the moonlight even more visible than yourself, but I did not then understand my inner existence. In the ante-room it was revealed to me. I became a man. I came out in full maturity. But you had left the warm countries. As a man, I felt ashamed to go about without boots or clothes, and that exterior finish by which man is known. So I went my own way. I can tell you, for you will not put it in a book. I hid myself under the cloak of a cake woman, but she little thought who she concealed. It was not till evening that I ventured out. I ran about the streets in the moonlight. I drew myself up to my full height upon the walls, which tickled my back very pleasantly. I ran here and there, looked through the highest windows into the rooms, and over the roofs. I looked in, and saw what nobody else could see, or indeed ought to see. In fact, it is a bad world, and I would not care to be a man, but that men are of some importance. I saw the most miserable things going on between husbands and wives, parents and children,– sweet, incomparable children. I have seen what no human being has the power of knowing, although they would all be very glad to know– the evil conduct of their neighbors. Had I written a newspaper, how eagerly it would have been read! Instead of which, I wrote directly to the persons themselves, and great alarm arose in all the town I visited. They had so much fear of me, and yet how dearly they loved me. The professor made me a professor. The tailor gave me new clothes. I am well provided for in that way. The overseer of the mint struck coins for me. The women declared that I was handsome, and so I became the man you now see me. And now I must say adieu. Here is my card. I live on the sunny side of the street, and always stay at home in rainy weather.“ And the shadow departed.

„This is all very remarkable,“ said the learned man.

Years passed, days and years went by, and the shadow came again. „How are you going on now?“ he asked.

„Ah!“ said the learned man; „I am writing about the true, the beautiful, and the good; but no one cares to hear anything about it. I am quite in despair, for I take it to heart very much.“

„That is what I never do,“ said the shadow; „I am growing quite fat and stout, which every one ought to be. You do not understand the world. You will make yourself ill about it. You ought to travel. I am going on a journey in the summer, will you go with me? I should like a travelling companion; will you travel with me as my shadow? It would give me great pleasure, and I will pay all expenses.“

„Are you going to travel far?“ asked the learned man.

„That is a matter of opinion,“ replied the shadow. „At all events, a journey will do you good, and if you will be my shadow, then all your journey shall be paid.“

„It appears to me very absurd,“ said the learned man.

„But it is the way of the world,“ replied the shadow, „and always will be.“ Then he went away.

Everything went wrong with the learned man. Sorrow and trouble pursued him, and what he said about the good, the beautiful, and the true, was of as much value to most people as a nutmeg would be to a cow. At length he fell ill. „You really look like a shadow,“ people said to him, and then a cold shudder would pass over him, for he had his own thoughts on the subject.

„You really ought to go to some watering-place,“ said the shadow on his next visit. „There is no other chance for you. I will take you with me, for the sake of old acquaintance. I will pay the expenses of your journey, and you shall write a description of it to amuse us by the way. I should like to go to a watering-place; my beard does not grow as it ought, which is from weakness, and I must have a beard. Now do be sensible and accept my proposal. We shall travel as intimate friends.“

And at last they started together. The shadow was master now, and the master became the shadow. They drove together, and rode and walked in company with each other, side by side, or one in front and the other behind, according to the position of the sun. The shadow always knew when to take the place of honor, but the learned man took no notice of it, for he had a good heart, and was exceedingly mild and friendly.

One day the master said to the shadow, „We have grown up together from our childhood, and now that we have become travelling companions, shall we not drink to our good fellowship, and say thee and thou to each other?“

„What you say is very straightforward and kindly meant,“ said the shadow, who was now really master. „I will be equally kind and straightforward. You are a learned man, and know how wonderful human nature is. There are some men who cannot endure the smell of brown paper. It makes them ill. Others will feel a shuddering sensation to their very marrow, if a nail is scratched on a pane of glass. I myself have a similar kind of feeling when I hear any one say thou to me. I feel crushed by it, as I used to feel in my former position with you. You will perceive that this is a matter of feeling, not pride. I cannot allow you to say thou to me. I will gladly say it to you, and therefore your wish will be half fulfilled.“ Then the shadow addressed his former master as thou.

„It is going rather too far,“ said the latter, „that I am to say you when I speak to him, and he is to say thou to me.“ However, he was obliged to submit.

They arrived at length at the baths, where there were many strangers, and among them a beautiful princess, whose real disease consisted in being too sharp-sighted, which made every one very uneasy. She saw at once that the new comer was very different to every one else. „They say he is here to make his beard grow,“ she thought. „But I know the real cause, he is unable to cast a shadow.“ Then she became very curious on the matter, and one day, while on the promenade, she entered into conversation with the strange gentleman. Being a princess, she was not obliged to stand upon much ceremony, so she said to him without hesitation, „Your illness consists in not being able to cast a shadow.“

„Your royal highness must be on the high road to recovery from your illness,“ said he. „I know your complaint arose from being too sharp-sighted, and in this case it has entirely failed. I happen to have a most unusual shadow. Have you not seen a person who is always at my side? Persons often give their servants finer cloth for their liveries than for their own clothes, and so I have dressed out my shadow like a man; nay, you may observe that I have even given him a shadow of his own. It is rather expensive, but I like to have things about me that are peculiar.“

„How is this?“ thought the princess; „am I really cured? This must be the best watering-place in existence. Water in our times has certainly wonderful power. But I will not leave this place yet, just as it begins to be amusing. This foreign prince– for he must be a prince– pleases me above all things. I only hope his beard won’t grow, or he will leave at once.“

In the evening, the princess and the shadow danced together in the large assembly rooms. She was light, but he was lighter still. She had never seen such a dancer before. She told him from what country she had come, and found he knew it and had been there, but not while she was at home. He had looked into the windows of her father’s palace, both the upper and the lower windows. He had seen many things, and could therefore answer the princess, and make allusions which quite astonished her. She thought he must be the cleverest man in all the world, and felt the greatest respect for his knowledge. When she danced with him again she fell in love with him, which the shadow quickly discovered, for she had with her eyes looked him through and through. They danced once more, and she was nearly telling him, but she had some discretion. She thought of her country, her kingdom, and the number of people over whom she would one day have to rule. „He is a clever man,“ she thought to herself, „which is a good thing, and he dances admirably, which is also good. But has he well-grounded knowledge? that is an important question, and I must try him.“ Then she asked him a most difficult question, she herself could not have answered it, and the shadow made a most unaccountable grimace.

„You cannot answer that,“ said the princess.

„I learnt something about it in my childhood,“ he replied. „And believe that even my very shadow, standing over there by the door, could answer it.“

„Your shadow,“ said the princess; „indeed that would be very remarkable.“

„I do not say so positively,“ observed the shadow. „But I am inclined to believe that he can do so. He has followed me for so many years, and has heard so much from me, that I think it is very likely. But your royal highness must allow me to observe, that he is very proud of being considered a man, and to put him in a good humor, so that he may answer correctly, he must be treated as a man.“

„I shall be very pleased to do so,“ said the princess. So she walked up to the learned man, who stood in the doorway, and spoke to him of the sun, and the moon, of the green forests, and of people near home and far off; and the learned man conversed with her pleasantly and sensibly.

„What a wonderful man he must be, to have such a clever shadow!“ thought she. „If I were to choose him it would be a real blessing to my country and my subjects, and I will do it.“ So the princess and the shadow were soon engaged to each other, but no one was to be told a word about it, till she returned to her kingdom.

„No one shall know,“ said the shadow; „not even my own shadow;“ and he had very particular reasons for saying so.

After a time, the princess returned to the land over which she reigned, and the shadow accompanied her.

„Listen my friend,“ said the shadow to the learned man; „now that I am as fortunate and as powerful as any man can be, I will do something unusually good for you. You shall live in my palace, drive with me in the royal carriage, and have a hundred thousand dollars a year; but you must allow every one to call you a shadow, and never venture to say that you have been a man. And once a year, when I sit in my balcony in the sunshine, you must lie at my feet as becomes a shadow to do. For I must tell you I am going to marry the princess, and our wedding will take place this evening.“

„Now, really, this is too ridiculous,“ said the learned man. „I cannot, and will not, submit to such folly. It would be cheating the whole country, and the princess also. I will disclose everything, and say that I am the man, and that you are only a shadow dressed up in men’s clothes.“

„No one would believe you,“ said the shadow; „be reasonable, now, or I will call the guards.“

„I will go straight to the princess,“ said the learned man.

„But I shall be there first,“ replied the shadow, „and you will be sent to prison.“ And so it turned out, for the guards readily obeyed him, as they knew he was going to marry the king’s daughter.

„You tremble,“ said the princess, when the shadow appeared before her. „Has anything happened? You must not be ill today, for this evening our wedding will take place.“

„I have gone through the most terrible affair that could possibly happen,“ said the shadow; „only imagine, my shadow has gone mad. I suppose such a poor, shallow brain, could not bear much. He fancies that he has become a real man, and that I am his shadow.“

„How very terrible,“ cried the princess; „is he locked up?“

„Oh yes, certainly. For I fear he will never recover.“

„Poor shadow!“ said the princess; „it is very unfortunate for him. It would really be a good deed to free him from his frail existence; and, indeed, when I think how often people take the part of the lower class against the higher, in these days, it would be policy to put him out of the way quietly.“

„It is certainly rather hard upon him, for he was a faithful servant,“ said the shadow; and he pretended to sigh.

„Yours is a noble character,“ said the princess, and bowed herself before him.

In the evening the whole town was illuminated, and cannons fired „boom,“ and the soldiers presented arms. It was indeed a grand wedding. The princess and the shadow stepped out on the balcony to show themselves, and to receive one cheer more. But the learned man heard nothing of all these festivities, for he had already been executed.

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Backgrounds to fairy tale „The shadow“

„The Shadow“ is a dark and philosophical fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen first published in 1847. The story is quite different from many of Andersen’s other works, as it delves into themes of identity, duality, and morality.

The background to the fairy tale is centered around a learned man who lives in a hot country. One day, he notices his shadow has grown longer and more human-like as the sun sets. Intrigued by this phenomenon, the learned man starts a conversation with his shadow. The shadow, acting independently, decides to leave the man and explore the world on its own. The story is set in an unnamed, fantastical world, adding to the mysterious and allegorical nature of the tale.

„The Shadow“ can be seen as a reflection of Andersen’s own life and experiences. At the time of writing, Andersen was dealing with feelings of loneliness and an increasing sense of melancholy. The story can also be interpreted as an exploration of the darker aspects of human nature, represented by the shadow, and how they can overpower and consume the more noble and virtuous qualities, represented by the learned man.

The tale has been interpreted in various ways, with some critics seeing it as a comment on the duality of human nature and the struggle between good and evil. Others have read it as a cautionary tale about the dangers of ambition and the pursuit of worldly success at the expense of one’s morals and inner self.

Interpretations to fairy tale „The shadow“

„The Shadow“ by Hans Christian Andersen has been subject to various interpretations over the years, with readers and critics exploring its themes and symbolism. Some of the most prominent interpretations include:

Duality of human nature: The story can be seen as an exploration of the duality of human nature, with the learned man representing the good, noble, and virtuous aspects of humanity, while the shadow symbolizes the darker, selfish, and immoral side. The separation and eventual merging of the two characters illustrate the idea that both qualities are present within each person and that they must coexist and be balanced.

The power of ambition: The shadow’s ambition and desire for power and status ultimately lead to its control and destruction of the learned man. This can be interpreted as a cautionary tale about the dangers of unchecked ambition and the pursuit of worldly success at the expense of one’s moral compass and true self.

The struggle between appearance and reality: The tale highlights the tension between appearance and reality, as the shadow gains power and influence by assuming the identity of the learned man. This can be seen as a critique of societal norms and values that prioritize external appearances over inner qualities and moral character.

The corrupting influence of power: As the shadow gains power and influence, it becomes more ruthless and immoral. This can be interpreted as a commentary on the corrupting influence of power and how it can lead to the degradation of one’s moral compass.

Loneliness and isolation: The learned man’s loneliness and isolation are recurring themes in the story. This can be seen as a reflection of Andersen’s own feelings of loneliness and melancholy at the time of writing, as well as a broader exploration of the human condition and the search for meaning and connection in a complex and often cruel world.

The loss of innocence: The story can also be seen as an allegory for the loss of innocence and the journey from childhood to adulthood, as the learned man’s initial curiosity and fascination with his shadow give way to disillusionment, despair, and eventual destruction.

Adaptions of the fairy tale „The shadow“

Although „The Shadow“ by Hans Christian Andersen is not among the most famous of his fairy tales, it has inspired several adaptations in various forms of media. Some notable examples include:

„The Shadow“ (1961), a short animation film: This Soviet animated film directed by Lev Atamanov is a visually striking adaptation of Andersen’s tale. It captures the essence of the original story while adding its own unique touch.

„The Shadow“ (2001), a radio drama: The BBC Radio 4 produced a radio drama adaptation of „The Shadow“ as part of their „Tales from Hans Christian Andersen“ series. This adaptation retells the story in an audio format, allowing listeners to use their imagination to bring the tale to life.

„The Shadow“ in „Faerie Tale Theater“ (1987): This American live-action TV anthology series, created by Shelley Duvall, featured an episode titled „The Shadow“ based on Andersen’s story. The episode starred Klaus Kinski as the learned man and features a faithful retelling of the original story.

„The Shadow“ (1970), a chamber opera: Danish composer Poul Rovsing Olsen adapted „The Shadow“ into a chamber opera. This adaptation adds a musical dimension to the story and emphasizes the emotional and psychological depth of the characters.

Literary adaptations: „The Shadow“ has also inspired various literary adaptations, including retellings and reinterpretations by modern authors. For example, „The Shadow in the Garden“ by Bradan Press is a children’s book adaptation of the story, and „The Shadow“ by John W. Sexton is a poem inspired by Andersen’s tale.

These adaptations showcase the enduring appeal of „The Shadow“ and the different ways in which the story can be reimagined and brought to life for new audiences.

Adaptions of the fairy tale „The shadow“

„The Shadow“ by Hans Christian Andersen has inspired a variety of adaptations in various forms of media. Here are some notable adaptations:

Film adaptations – Several film adaptations of „The Shadow“ have been produced, including the 1921 silent film „Schatten – Eine nächtliche Halluzination“ directed by Arthur Robison and the 2010 short film „The Shadow“ directed by Isaac Ezban.

Literary adaptations – „The Shadow“ has been adapted into several literary works, including the 2008 novel „Shadow“ by Michael Morpurgo and the 2013 graphic novel „The Shadow Hero“ by Gene Luen Yang and Sonny Liew.

Musical adaptations – „The Shadow“ has been adapted into a musical play titled „Shadow Shadows“ by American composer Marjorie Merryman. The play premiered in 2004 at the American Music Theater Festival in Philadelphia.

Ballet adaptation – In 2017, the Royal Danish Ballet premiered a new ballet adaptation of „The Shadow“ choreographed by Gregory Dean and featuring music by Danish composer Anders Koppel.

Animated adaptations – „The Shadow“ has been adapted into several animated works, including the 1989 Soviet animated film „The Shadow“ directed by Aleksandr Petrov and the 2014 animated short film „The Shadow“ by filmmaker Andrés Guerrero.

Overall, „The Shadow“ continues to inspire new adaptations in various forms of media, reflecting its enduring cultural and literary value.

Summary of the plot

„The Shadow“ is a thought-provoking fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen that tells the story of a learned man who lives in a warm country where his shadow grows very long during the evenings. One day, the man’s shadow becomes separated from him and gains its own life. The shadow leaves the man and ventures out into the world.

Years later, the shadow returns to the learned man, now rich and well-dressed. The shadow tells the man about the knowledge and experiences it has gained while exploring the world. The shadow proposes a deal: it will share its wealth with the man if the man agrees to become its servant. The man initially refuses, but as his financial situation worsens, he eventually agrees to the arrangement.

The shadow convinces the man to travel with it to visit a beautiful princess. During the journey, the shadow grows increasingly powerful and dominant, while the learned man becomes weaker and more submissive. The shadow spreads false information, claiming that the man is its shadow, and the princess eventually falls in love with the shadow.

As the shadow prepares to marry the princess, it demands that the man act as its shadow at the wedding. The man, now fully under the shadow’s control, has no choice but to obey. On the eve of the wedding, the shadow orders the man to be executed. However, before the execution can take place, the shadow learns that the princess is also a shadow, and that her true self is a beautiful angel of light. Realizing that it can never truly possess the princess, the shadow withers away, and the man’s life is spared.

„The Shadow“ is a dark and allegorical tale that explores themes of identity, ambition, deception, and the struggle between good and evil.


Backgrounds to fairy tale „The shadow“

„The Shadow“ is a literary fairy tale written by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen, a prolific writer known for his numerous fairy tales, including classics like „The Little Mermaid,“ „The Ugly Duckling,“ and „The Snow Queen.“ Born on April 2, 1805, in Odense, Denmark, Andersen’s writing career spanned various genres such as poetry, travelogues, and novels, but his fairy tales are his most celebrated works.

„The Shadow“ was first published on April 6, 1847, in a collection titled „New Fairy Tales. Second Volume. First Collection. 1847“ (Nye Eventyr. Andet Bind. Første Samling. 1847). The tale was later republished in several other collections, including „A Christmas Greeting to my English Friends“ (December 1847), „Fairy Tales. 1850“ (Eventyr. 1850), and „Fairy Tales and Stories. Second Volume. 1863“ (Eventyr og Historier. Andet Bind. 1863).

Although Andersen’s fairy tales are often associated with children’s literature, many of them, including „The Shadow,“ were written for adult audiences as well. Andersen’s tales often delve into complex themes and contain deeper meanings that reflect his own experiences, beliefs, and the socio-cultural context of the time.

„The Shadow“ is influenced by Adelbert von Chamisso’s „Peter Schlemihl’s Miraculous Story,“ a tale published in 1814 about a man who sells his shadow to the devil in exchange for a bottomless wallet. Andersen’s story, in turn, appears to have influenced Oscar Wilde’s „The Fisherman and His Soul.“

Interpretations to fairy tale „The shadow“

There are various interpretations of Hans Christian Andersen’s „The Shadow.“ Here are a few notable ones:

Indirect revenge: Literary critic Jacqueline Banerjee suggests that Andersen wrote the story as a form of indirect revenge against Edvard Collin, the son of Anderson’s patron, who had rejected him. This interpretation highlights the personal motivations that might have driven Andersen to create the story.

Hegelian dynamic of master and slave: Another interpretation, by literary critic Jack Zipes, sees „The Shadow“ as representing the Hegelian dynamic of master and slave. In this view, the story explores the power struggle between the learned man (the master) and his shadow (the slave) as their roles become reversed.

The duality of human nature: Some readers interpret „The Shadow“ as a commentary on the duality of human nature, with the learned man representing the good, rational side and the shadow representing the dark, irrational side. The story highlights how the dark side can take control of an individual, leading to destruction.

The consequences of ambition and greed: „The Shadow“ can also be seen as a cautionary tale about the consequences of ambition and greed. The shadow’s desire to gain insight into the darker aspects of human behavior, and its eventual enslavement of the man, demonstrate the dangers of seeking power at all costs.

Influence and inspiration: As mentioned earlier, Andersen’s „The Shadow“ was inspired by Adelbert von Chamisso’s „Peter Schlemihl’s Miraculous Story“ and is believed to have influenced Oscar Wilde’s „The Fisherman and His Soul.“ These connections highlight the broader context of literary traditions and themes explored by different authors across time.

Ultimately, the interpretations of „The Shadow“ are as varied as the readers who engage with the tale. The story’s lasting appeal lies in its ability to provoke thought and inspire diverse interpretations based on each reader’s unique perspective.

Summary of the plot

„The Shadow“ is a literary fairy tale by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen, first published in 1847. The story follows a learned man whose shadow becomes self-aware and starts living its own life. As the shadow gains insight into the darker aspects of human behavior, it returns to the man and enslaves him, ultimately having him killed out of fear of discovery.

Some literary critics believe that Andersen wrote this story as an indirect revenge against Edvard Collin, the son of Andersen’s patron, who had rejected him. Others interpret the story as representing the Hegelian dynamic of master and slave.

The tale was inspired by Adelbert von Chamisso’s „Peter Schlemihl’s Miraculous Story,“ published in 1814, which tells the story of a man who sells his shadow to the devil for a bottomless wallet. Andersen’s „The Shadow“ is believed to have influenced Oscar Wilde’s „The Fisherman and His Soul.“

„The Shadow“ has been adapted into various forms, including Esperanto, a play by Evgeny Shvarts, an episode of the radio program The Weird Circle, a song on the album „The Song Is a Fairytale,“ an opera by Karólína Eiríksdóttir, and a ballet by the Carolina Ballet.

Informations for scientific analysis

Fairy tale statistics
TranslationsDE, EN, DA, ES, FR, IT
Readability Index by Björnsson29.9
Flesch-Reading-Ease Index79.2
Flesch–Kincaid Grade-Level6.2
Gunning Fog Index9
Coleman–Liau Index7.9
SMOG Index9.1
Automated Readability Index5.6
Character Count26.142
Letter Count19.991
Sentence Count307
Word Count4.960
Average Words per Sentence16,16
Words with more than 6 letters684
Percentage of long words13.8%
Number of Syllables6.522
Average Syllables per Word1,31
Words with three Syllables316
Percentage Words with three Syllables6.4%
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